Noter & Litteratur

Begyndelsen

1. Dmitris Papadopoulos,  Niamh Stephenson & Tsianos Vassilis:  Escape Routes – Control and Subversion in the 21st Century, 2008, s. xiii

2. Jeg bruger i tilfældet her termen migrant for ikke at indskrænke gruppen til flygtninge eller asylsøgere, men uden at tage stilling til brugen af de forskellige definitioner. Jeg vil nogle gange skrive migranter og andre gange flygtninge og migranter, uden at der skal lægges noget i det. Diskussionen tager jeg i senere tekster.

3. Nationens grænse og det kommende fællesskab – dansk og europæisk asylaktivisme i et transnationalt perspektiv, visAvis #6, s. 40

Metoden

1. Peter Nyers: Abject Cosmopolitanism, The Politics of Protection in the Anti-Deportation Movement, s. 415. Fra antologien The Deportation Regime – Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement (red. De Genova, Nicholas & Peutz, Nathalie), 2010

2. Giorgio Agamben, Homo Sacer – Sovereign Power and Bare Life, 1998 [1995]

Nationalstaten

1. Cirka sådan formulerede jeg engang pligtskyldigt, som det nu forventes, en selvkritik i en akademisk sammenhæng.

2. Især Giorgio Agambens Homo Sacer – Sovereign Power and Bare Life, 1998 [1995] og State of Exeption (2005) [2003] samt Arjun Appudarais Modernity at Large – Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (2010) [1996] og Fear of Small Numbers – An Essayn on the Geography of Anger (2007) [2006]

Kirkeasyl

1. Indhold og de følgende citater er altså taget fra min egen artikel Når lejren rykker inden for, 2009. Download

2. Eskil Halberg & Katrine Willumsen: Synlighed, modstand, strategi, s. 141. Fra Kirkeasyl – en kamp for ophold, 2011

3. Line Høeg Skov: Så er det fuckin op! s. 149. Fra Kirkeasyl – en kamp for ophold, 2011

4. Hannah Kirstine Alberts: Hverdag i en ekstraordinær situation, s. 42. Fra Kirkeasyl – en kamp for ophold, 2011

5. Michel Foucault: At forsvare sig, 1980. Download

Radikalitet og selvrepræsentation

1. K.E. Løgstrup: Den etiske fordring, 1995 [1956], s. 25

2. Zygmunt Bauman: Flydende kærlighed, 2004 [2003], s. 113

3. K.E. Løgstrup: Den etiske fordring, 1995 [1956], s. 35-36

4. Jaques Derrida: Of Hospitality, 2000 [1997]

5. K.E. Løgstrup: Den etiske fordring, 1995 [1956], s .35

6. Zygmunt Bauman: Flydende kærlighed, 2004 [2003], s. 31

7. Se også visAvis’ egne formuleringer om sine redaktionelle linjer og principper.

8. Étienne Balibar: We, the People of Europe? 2004 [2001], s. 109

Grænsemødet

1. I slutningen af teksten Radikalitet og selvrepræsentation.

2. Paul Virilio: Forsvindingens æstetik, 2003 [1989], s. 77

3. Se Begyndelsen.

4. Se Begyndelsen.

5. Paul Virilio: Forsvindingens æstetik, 2003 [1989], s. 66

6. Infopoint – During Noborder Lesvos 2009. Download

7. Ibid. s. 3, min oversættelse fra: ”We, the authors of this booklet, are a group of (German) antiracist activists. We have been involved in antiracist struggles, of which the Noborder Camps are only one element, for ten years or more. We believe that it is important to organize and lead the antiracist struggle together with those who are affected the most by the attacks of a racist society. For us, such struggle includes efforts to overcome barriers between us, to become aware of our own privileges, and to recognize the approaches, needs and demands of people who have a different background and status in society. Also, the struggle relies on sharing our experiences and on disrupting the confrontation of ‘white activists’ on one side of the spectrum, and ‘black victims’ on the other.”

8. Ibid. s. 6-7, min oversættelse fra: “Faced with the arrival of a group of refugees in the Camp, many activists entered into an emotional debate about different political approaches and resulting from different political experiences, a polarisation of ‘social work’ versus ‘political activism’ evolved. Some activists feared getting lost in dealing with individual cases, and the Camp might loose its focus on actions. Local activists objected that we would disappear after one week and everything would be the same again. Others said we should not take on the social responsibilities of the state, or hide away the ‘problem’ of migration by taking its subjects to us far away from the public. In the discussion, certain objections had ugly undertones: “The place for the Noborder Camp is nearly full and we await hundreds of activists”, ensues over the problem of a possibly limited infrastructure of toilets and space, which turned into an argument not to take up refugees ‘additionally’ to the hundreds of activists still awaited to come. Others argued that we could not land here like UFOS, enging in symbolic protest without becoming a part of the situation we find. They advocated for a common struggle with refugees, relying on past powerful experiences – and argued that it is necessary to also deal with the concrete needs of everyone involved in a common struggle. As a sort of compromise, the Camp decided to build a place where people released from Pagani could stay in the middle of the city, free to chose to go to Charamida if they needed a rest, and to combine it with a temporary Info- and Welcome-point. It aimed to bring the demands for an open welcome-centre instead of detention-prisons into a broader public. It should become a place to give the local society the possibility to take a side. It was the expressed will to give practical and direct support in a public space. And it became a kind of counter-concept of migration policies. We are producing this booklet as a result of this experience. As you might imagine we have argued strongly for this option of encounter and exchange, out of various experiences we had made before in common struggles […] The experience of this experiment shows that it is possible to come together, even with migrants in transit who are very much concentrated on continuing their journey, and to fight together. Never before have we experienced a Noborder Camp on the outer borders of the EU at which political protests and social struggles for freedom of movement were as intertwined as they were in this summer on Lesvos.”

9. Ibid. s. 3, min oversættelse fra: “An Infopoint was set up at this site of wait, hope and the search for possibilities. Refugees, tourists, activists, migrants, and everybody in-between, had a role to play on this site of exchange and support. As a result, it was possible to question the distinction between ‘the european activists’, ‘the migrants’, and ‘the refugees’. It was possible to overcome individualized travel and struggle. People who involved themselves in the project created a corridor of information that helped to abolish borders, spread

10. Ibid. s. 5, min oversættelse fra: “Where I have to go, I don’t know. But as long as you are alive you will be walking. You are not going to stop. Just walking. Til wherever you arrive. So where we are going to arrive, we don’t know. Just that we are going to forward, we are not going to back.”

11. Ibid. s. 34, min oversættelse fra: “Yes! we have a message to European Union and United Nations: please, let the refugees free and finish these borders and give us our rights.”

12. Ibid. s. 36, min oversættelse fra: “Yes! When we got released, we saw our pictures in the newspaper. And the people of Mitilini they had complained to the police: “Release them!” I think the revolt was really helpful for us. And really the journalists and media helped us. But police didn’t allow them to get inside of Pagani. They were asking us their questions from outside of Pagani. Police was ready to fight with them and also with us. I don’t think police inside this Pagani were human.”

13. Ibid. s. 37, min oversættelse fra: “The last night it was a very important night in my life! It was a good place on the beach. There were all the activists and the refugees from all the different countries all together. It was our last night that we were at Noborder Camp. And really we enjoyed that night! We were dancing and singing and beating the drums. When the drummers got tired there were loudspeakers. We were free from everything! Nobody was disturbing us. It was an open area. Really we enjoyed that night! The songs were about our country, about Afghanistan. One is from one famous singer… I cannot sing, so I cannot show it now. Our singer was Hamid, he is a really funny guy. Even in Pagani he was singing. He was singing, and inside the Dari song he was adding “No border! No nation!” It became a funny song and this night became a really special night. Until now all the guys are talking about that night. “At that night I did like this … I danced like this … you looked like this …” We will not get this night again in our lives! It was first and last night. Even if we pay 10.000 Euro we cannot get this night. It was the one special night in our life!”

14. Ibid. s. 22, min oversættelse fra: “But as long as you are alive / you will be walking / you are not going to stop / just walking / till wherever you arrive.  / so where we are going to arrive, / we don’t know. / Just that we are going forward, / we are not going to back. / The world is round / and we are walking. / where it’s going to finish, / we don’t know / till the power will cut. / Or till noborders!

15. Ibid. s. 47, min oversættelse fra: “A place of and for everybody who crosses the door entrance and is interested in creating a ‘welcoming space’ independent from legal constructions of ‘the citizen’ […] In short: it will be a place for Greeks and non-Greeks, for all people interested in encounter and interchange.”

16. Læs mere på initiativets hjemmeside.

17. I skrivende stund, december 2012.

Begrebsliggørelsen

1.  Giorgio Agamben: Homo Sacer – Sovereign Power and Bare Life, 1998 [1995] og State of Exception (2005) [2003]

2. Giorgio Agamben: We Refugees, 1993, Download og Hannah Arendt: We Refugees, 1943, Download

3. Hannah Arendt: We Refugees, 1943, s. 110, min oversættelse fra: “A refugee used to be a person driven to seek refuge because of some act committed or some political opinion held. Well, it is true we have had to seek refuge; but we committed no acts and most of us never dreamt of having any radical opinion. With us the meaning of the term ‘refugee’ has changed. Now ‘refugees’ are those of us who have been so unfortunate as to arrive in a new country without means and have to be helped by Refugee Committes.”

4. Ibid. s. 119

5. Hebræisk betegnelse for forestillingen om det israelske land, Storisrael eller det komplette Israel.

6. Giorgio Agamben: We Refugees, 1993, s. 118-119, min oversættelse fra: “Today, in a sort of no-man’s-land between Lebanon and Israel, there are four hundred and twenty-five Palestinians who were expelled by the state of Israel. According to Hannah Arendt’s suggestion, these men constitute “the avant-garde of their people.” But this does not necessarily or only mean that they might form the original nucleus of a future national state, which would probably resolve the Palestinian problem just as inadequately as Israel has resolved the Jewish question. Rather, the no-man’s-land where they have found refuge has retroacted on the territory of the state of Israel, making holes in it and altering it in such a way that the image of that snow-covered hill has become more an internal part of that territory than any other region of Heretz Israel. It is only in a land where the spaces of states will have been perforated and topologically defonned, and the citizen will have learned to acknowledge the refugee that he himself is, that man’s political survival today is imaginable.”

7. The Autonomy of Migration: Understanding migration as a social movement, visAvis #6, 2012, s. 46. Email interview med Sandro Mezzadra af Jens Pfeifer og mig. visAvis’ oversættelse fra: “What concerns me about what you call a ‘Giorgio Agamben-inspired’ analysis is the fact that while it definitely provides powerful tools of denunciation of the dispossession and wholesale stripping of migrants and refugees, it also certifies their impotency.”

8. Manuela Bojadžijev & Serhat Karakayali: Recuperating the Sideshows of Capitalism: The Autonomy of Migration, E-flux #17, 2010. Download

9. The Autonomy of Migration: Understanding migration as a social movement, visAvis #6, 2012, s. 43. Email interview med Sandro Mezzadra af Jens Pfeifer og mig. visAvis’ oversættelse fra: “The autonomy of migration approach does not ignore, of course, the relevance of social, legal, political, cultural, and economic structures when framing migratory experiences. It rather considers the social process and movement of migration (and not migrants individually considered) as a creative force within these structures. This produces a specific gaze on migration, one that looks at migratory movements and conflicts in terms that prioritize the subjective practices, the desires, the expectations, and the behaviors of migrants themselves.”

10. Manuela Bojadžijev & Serhat Karakayali: Recuperating the Sideshows of Capitalism: The Autonomy of Migration, E-flux #17, 2010, s. 3, min oversættelse fra: “Perceiving migrant practices as a subversive Other to nation-states, or even to capitalism, is not the answer.”

11. The Autonomy of Migration: Understanding migration as a social movement, visAvis #6, 2012, s. 45. Email interview med Sandro Mezzadra af Jens Pfeifer og mig. visAvis’ oversættelse fra: “Needless to say, the concept itself of autonomy is deeply ambivalent. One thinks of its use as a slogan in radical movements that define themselves as ‘autonomous’, but it should never be forgotten that the concept of individual ‘autonomy’ is the cornerstone of liberal theory. To speak of the ‘autonomy’ of individual migrants would mean to stitch onto migrants the liberal figure of the autonomous individual, which is of course not the aim of proponents of the autonomy of migration approach.”

12. Ibid. s. 45, visAvis’ oversættelse fra: “You ask me whether the autonomy of migration must be understood as a strategic concept or an empirically based assumption. In a way it is both, but if you consider it as a gaze it is to be located somewhere between the two … The autonomy of migration approach has inspired a lot of empirical research, and has a strategic meaning in the sense that it points to the crucial relevance of struggles of migration, which means struggles around mobility and borders, for any contemporary social movement.”

13. Manuela Bojadžijev & Serhat Karakayali: Recuperating the Sideshows of Capitalism: The Autonomy of Migration, E-flux #17, 2010, s. 5, min oversættelse fra: [H]ow should one relate politically to the actual subjectivity of migrants when it asserts itself as radical self-victimization, seemingly contrary to the thesis of autonomy?”

Migrationens autonomi

1. Se Begrebsliggørelsen.

2. The Autonomy of Migration: Understanding migration as a social movement, visAvis #6, 2012, s.43. Email interview med Sandro Mezzadra af Jens Pfeifer og mig. visAvis’ oversættelse fra: “From the point of view of this approach individual migrants are enmeshed in the materiality of migration, which is in turn characterized by moments of autonomy that exist in tension with powerful structural determinations. It is from this materiality that a multiplicity of subject positions emerges and it is within this material field that the subjectivity of individual migrants is produced.”

3. Dmitris Papadopoulos, Niamh Stephenson & Tsianos Vassilis:  Escape Routes – Control and Subversion in the 21st Century, 2008. Min oversættelse fra: ”Joy is the ultimate proof.” ”All the acts of the drama of world history were performed before a chorus of laughing people.”

4. Ibid. s. 162-202

5. Ibid. s. 176-181

6. Ibid. s. 191-200

7. Ibid. prologen og s. 3-15. Citatet findes i prologen på s. xiii, min oversættelse fra: ”Another world is here.”

8. Ibid. s. 30

9. Nicholas De Genova: The Deportation Regime – Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement, 2010, s. 40. Artikel i antologien af samme navn (red. Nicholas De Genova & Nathalie Peutz). Min oversættelse fra: “Notably, Marx repeatedly glosses this life-activity as ‘energy’, ‘unrest’, ‘motion’ – indeed, as ‘movement’. Furthermore, the productive power and creative capacity that are thus defining – and, in effect, definitive – of the species particularity of the human, as such, likewise are posited by Marx explicitly (and emphatically) as ‘sovereign power’.”

10. Se Begrebsliggørelsen.

11. Peter Nyers: Rethinking Refugees – Beyond States of Emergency, 2006, s. 43-51

12. I dette perspektiv udvides der naturligt til migranter i bred forstand frem for at tale om flygtninge (selv om flugt ganske vist er et centralt begreb i Escape Routes), men jeg vil igen pointere at man ikke skal lægget noget i mit valg af terminologi og at terminologidiskussionen tages i senere tekster.

13. Nicholas De Genova: The Deportation Regime – Sovereignty, Space, and the Freedom of Movement, 2010, s. 39, min oversættelse fra: ”What, in the end, is movement – and therefore the freedom of movement – if not a figure par excellence of life, indeed, life in its barest essential condition? Here, of course, we must emphatically distinguish between freedom – as an ontological condition – and anything on the order of a ‘right’ that has been so ordained within one or another normative or juridical framework. In this regard, the freedom of movement may best be understood, precisely, not as a ‘right’ – and neither as something so juridical (and decidedly modern) as a ‘human right’, nor anything so metaphysical as a putative ‘natural right’.”

14. Anarchopride Stockholm: Queering the border, Brand #3/2012, s. 13. Download. min oversættelse fra: ”We see that queer anarchism is the way to organize resistance and fight back. We don’t see laws dictated by national states as ethic and justified in any way. We want to fuck with all kinds of normality. Even though the control and the normality try to tell us it is impossible. We are still moving – we are still breaking the borders. People are running, hiding, crossing the borders, destroying fingerprints. People are refusing boxes of identity such as sex and nationality.”

15. Se Begrebsliggørelsen.

16. Dmitris Papadopoulos,  Niamh Stephenson & Tsianos Vassilis: Escape Routes – Control and Subversion in the 21st Century, 2008, s. 210, min oversættelse fra: “a unidirectional, purposeful and intentional process.”

17. Ibid. s. 211, min oversættelse fra: “Migration is not the evacuation of one place and the occupation of a different one; it is the making and remaking of one’s own life on the scenery of the world. World-making.”

18. Ibid. s. 211, min oversættelse fra: “Travels become the law, becoming becomes the code […] becoming animal, becoming women, becoming amphibious, becoming imperceptible.”

19. Ibid. s. 216, min oversættelse fra: “Migrants do not connect to each other by representing and communicating their true individual identities, nor by translating for others what they posses or what they are. Migrants do not need translation to communicate, migration does not need mediation. Migrants connect to each other through becomings, through their own gradual and careful, sometimes painful transformation of their existing bodily constitution; they realize their desire by changing their bodies, voices, accents, patois, hair, colour, height, gender, age, biographies.”

20. Ibid. s. 220, min oversættelse fra: “What migrants really want is to become everybody, to become imperceptible. They try to become like everybody else by refusing to be something, by refusing imperatives to become integrated and assimilated into the logic of border administration and cultural control. Migration is the moment when you prefer to say: I prefer not to be.”

21. Sally Jane Hole: How does the movement of migration journey through the European border regime? – Exploring the ‘becomings’ of irregularity, transit space and political subjectivity in Patras, Greece, 2011, s. 17, min oversættelse fra: “We may ask however, whether these radical subjectivities can be found in ‘the field’ or rather they are really only theoretical constructions.”

22. Ibid. s. 44, min oversættelse fra: “We find however that this leftist activism tends to impose its own politics on migrants, revealing a tacit assumption that political subjectivity only properly belongs to citizens (Neilson & Mitropoulos 2007). Activists call to migrants to integrate into the ‘public sphere’, to become like citizens too, to gain voice and visibility.”

23. Ibid. s. 46, min oversættelse fra: “Kinisi visit the camp, having invited anarchist groups to join them, explaining that they want to ‘try and organise something with the migrants’ in demonstration against the police brutality. Anarchist groups however decide to hold a separate meeting in their squat. Deciding what they are going to do, while Kinisi gather a crowd in the camp and begin to explain their visit, in Greek in English, with no Arabic translation. During this confused discussion, anarchists arrive, perhaps 150 people-strong, chanting in Greek; ‘We are with the migrants. Brush away the bosses, cops, and Nazis’. Fewer than ten migrants accompany them. Unable to understand Greek, nor local leftist politics very well, I see what most migrants see; a confused and confrontational scene. Some migrants are scared, some are disinterested and stroll off to make their dinner, others try to understand what is happening. A crowd gathers and an activist and migrant-translator begin speaking. In a display of segregation and opposition, migrants sit on one side of the rail lines, listening, while activists stand on the other side, behind their speaker.”

24. Ibid. s. 48, min oversættelse fra: “Ismail, from Sudan, explains to me that previous police incursions have aimed to punish migrants for manifesting, resulting in camp destructions and men being forcibly moved to the Albanian border. Instead of demonstrating, Ismail wants a ‘quiet life’, to avoid confrontation and retain his invisibility (Hiemstra 2010). It is a protective strategy learnt from experience.”

25. Ibid. s. 20

26. Ibid. s. 32, min oversættelse fra: “For many migrants I speak with waiting defines their lived experience of irregularity, and days are boring and empty. ‘I pass my time walking and reflecting’, Faysal explains, every day taking a different route out of the city and into the countryside. Faysal experiences a detachment from his present reality, feeling that he is ‘lost’ in this limbo, as if ‘in a vacuum’. Farouk, 30 from Algeria, also finds that time is something to be endured. He tells me how his empty days stretch into empty nights, as unable to sleep, he restlessly paces in the yard of his house, smoking. Farouk explains to me that since his arrival in Greece one month ago, he has not had one good night’s sleep, and he feels permanently exhausted and unwell.”

27. Ibid. s. 35-36, min oversættelse fra: “You cannot do what you do in your own country. You lose your status, lose your identity, some lose their religion … everything is different when you leave your country. You lose your rights.” “You must do what the government tells you to do. This is not our country, you cannot challenge. Law is law. You do what the police say, you are an illegal immigrant, you don’t have rights – I – me too, I am an illegal immigrant!”

28. Ibid. s. 36

29. Ibid. s. 33, min oversættelse fra: “I get up, I wake from my dream, you know, and the first thing I think, what are the conditions today. I walk to go to check the traffic lights, see if there is a chance there that day, and then I walk to the port to see the conditions there, to see if this day the police are by the traffic lights, and then I try at the port, or if they are at the port, and then I try back at the traffic lights.”

30. Ibid. s. 33, min oversættelse fra: “Most of the time you have nothing, you live always in the dark and with a pain in the head … when I leave Greece I will erase this country [from my memory].”

31. Ibid. s. 50, min oversættelse fra: “They catch me, fingerprint me – I give them a fake name, I always give a fake name, I am Hasan to them … and they put me in detention.”

32. Ibid. s. 42, min oversættelse fra: “Sometimes I go down to the port, to the beach and I sit there alone – not alone – I sit there, listen to my music for hours, I like this place… you can always find me here, this is my place [at the steps of Gerokostopoulou in the city centre], until 4 or 5, and then I go down to the port and I get fish – because I have so many Egyptian friends working on the boats and they give me fish for free – and I go home and cook the fish on the barbecue, have it for breakfast, and then I go to sleep – listen to Celine Dion … when I go to sleep – so I go to bed at 7.”

33. Ibid. s. 4, min oversættelse fra: “[T]his is my home but not my choice.”

34. Ibid. s. 50, min oversættelse fra: “The ‘politics of migration’ in Patras is therefore comprised of a complicated and somewhat contradictory combination of migrant imperceptibility, and migrant presence, of movement and settlement. These seemingly contrary enactments represent a strongly antiassimilationist (De Genova 2010), irregular political agenda underwritten, first and foremost, by a commitment to mobility. As Mantanika (2009:9) observes in demonstrations in Patras, migrants tend to ‘only care about slogans that concern more freedom in the port,’ and hence their ability to leave. Strategies for movement precede all else. This is the politics of the journey.”

35. Franco ‘Bifo’ Berrardi: After the Future, 2011, s. 125, min oversættelse fra: “At the end of the zero zero decade, for the first time in my life, I’ve been obliged to recognize that the actor is absent: you see actions, but you don’t see an actor. Actions without an actor play out on the ground of social visibility, but they don’t create any common ground in the space of consciousness and affectivity. Actions are performed in the theater of social production, but the agent of recombination is not there, in the theater, but backstage, and the consciousness of the process does not belong to the process itself.”

Begær og rekuperation

1.  Jean Baudrillard: Symbolic Exchange and Death, 2012 [1976], s. 1-43

2. Ibid. Se f.eks. s. 31, 75, 77 og 97

3. Gilles Deleuzes & Felix Guattari: Anti-Oedipus – Capitalism and Schizophrenia, 2004 [1972]

4. Jean Baudrillard: Symbolic Exchange and Death, 2012 [1976], s. 5, note 2, min oversættelse fra:
”The unbinding of energies is, however, the very form of the current system, which consists in a strategic drift of value. The system can be connected and disconnected, but all freed energies will one day return to it: this is how the concepts of energy and intensity come about. Capital is an energetic and intense system. Hence the impossibility of distinguishing the libidinal economy from the political economy of the system of value; and the impossibility of distinguishing capitalist schizzes from revolutionary schizzes.”

5. Ibid. s. 184

6. Jean Baudrillard: At glemme Foucault, 1982 [1977], s. 50-51

7. Michel Foucault: Viljen til viden – Seksualitetens historie 1, 1994 [1976], s.57. Se oså s. 23-24 og 55-57

8. Ibid. s. 132. Se også s. 44-45 og 138

9. Ibid. s. 156-164

10. Hvad der så end præcist menes med det. Foucault bruger ikke selv termen. Jeg kommer nærmere ind på det, når jeg i senere tekster bruger de to følgende bind i Seksualitetens historie.

11. Franco ‘Bifo’ Berrardi: The Soul at Work – from Alienation to Autonomy, 2007, s. 151

12. Jean Baudrillard: At glemme Foucault, 1982 [1977], s. 43. Se også s. 40-42

13. Michel Foucault: Viljen til viden – Seksualitetens historie 1, 1994 [1976], s. 101-102

14. Jean Baudrillard: At glemme Foucault, 1982 [1977], s. 34

15. Paul Virilio: Cyberworld – det værstes politik, 1998 [1996], s. 80. Hele afsnittet om Virilio er baseret på s. 21-108

16. Dmitris Papadopoulos, Niamh Stephenson & Tsianos Vassilis:  Escape Routes – Control and Subversion in the 21st Century, 2008, s.13 og 147. Se også s. 11-13

17. Gilles Deleuzes & Felix Guattari: Anti-Oedipus – Capitalism and Schizophrenia, 2004 [1972], s. 37, se også s. 31, 129 og 416. Min oversættelse fra: “What we are really trying to say is that capitalism, through its process of production, produces an awesome schizophrenic accumulation of energy or charge, against which it brings all its vast powers of repression to bear, but which nonetheless continues to act as capitalism’s limit. For capitalism constantly counteracts, constantly inhibits this inherent tendency while at the same time allowing it free rein; it continually seeks to avoid reaching its limit while simultaneously tending toward that limit. Capitalism institutes or restores all sorts of residual and artificial, imaginary, or symbolic territorialities, thereby attempting, as best it can, to recode, to rechannel, persons who have been defined in terms of abstract quantities. Everything returns or recurs: States, nations, families. That is what makes the ideology of capitalism ’a motley painting of everything that has ever been believed.’”

18. Sally Jane Hole: How does the movement of migration journey through the European border regime? – Exploring the ‘becomings’ of irregularity, transit space and political subjectivity in Patras, Greece, 2011, s. 6 og Michael Hardt & Antonio Negri: Imperiet, 2003 [2000], s.210

19. Dmitris Papadopoulos, Niamh Stephenson & Tsianos Vassilis: Escape Routes – Control and Subversion in the 21st Century, 2008, s. 207

20. Anarchopride Stockholm: Queering the border, Brand #3/2012, s. 13. Download. Min oversættelse fra: “Let the no border movement be here to destroy what has been recognized as normal. Attack the borders – make them impossible to find. The summer 2012 it is time for the No Border Camp in Stockholm. Fill it with crimes – destroy the map – make the police loose their way and their mind. Make it unrecognizable: Stockholm, the world, the wall, the sight in front of your eyes.”

21. Dmitris Papadopoulos, Niamh Stephenson & Tsianos Vassilis: Escape Routes – Control and Subversion in the 21st Century, 2008, s. 98-99

22. Ibid. s. 59

23. Bülent Diken & Carsten Bagge Laustsen, I terrorens skygge, 2004, s. 41. Se også s. 39-41

24. Ibid. s. 141-170

25. Franco ‘Bifo’ Berrardi: The Soul at Work – from Alienation to Autonomy, 2007, s. 118-119 og After the Future, 2011, s. 132-139

26. Paul Virilio: Cyberworld – det værstes politik, 1998 [1996], s. 57-62

27. Jean Baudrillard: Symbolic Exchange and Death, 2012 [1976], s. 10, min oversættelse fra: “Now we have passed from the commodity law of value to the structural law of value, and this coincides with the obliteration of the social form known as production. Given this, are we still with in a capitalist mode? It may be that we are in a hyper-capitalist mode, or in a very different order. Perhaps we are already within a socialist mode? Perhaps this metamorphosis of capital under the sign of the structural law of value is merely its socialist outcome? Oh dear …”

28. Paul Virilio: City of Panic, 2005 [2004], s. 91. Se også s. 37. Min oversættelse fra: “The ‘metapolitical’ bubble of globalization is in fact gearing up to burst in turn and when it does so, it will free up a multitude of critical spaces ravaged by internal dissension in a worldwide war incommensurable with the local wars of days gone by.”

29. I teksten Kirkeasyl, men også utallige gange, når jeg har snakket om visAvis og ikke mindst Trampolinhuset.

Tilbagetrækning og permanens

1. Se Begær og rekuperation.

2. Jean Baudrillard: Symbolic Exchange and Death, 2012 [1976], s. 4-5

3. Franco ‘Bifo’ Berrardi: After the Future, 2011, s. 178. Min oversættelse fra: “Subjectivation means “becoming other”, and this process has no limit, you can always shift and go elsewhere, and become other, and other, and other. It’s okay, but you also have to answer the question: who is becoming other? The subject does not pre-exist the process of becoming, that’s true. But the physical and nervous matter of the body, this cannot be separated from the process of becoming itself.” Se også s. 37-38, 120, 133, 138, 147 og 150.

4. Ibid. s. 154-158

5. Her tænker jeg på den del af Baudrillards analyse, som jeg positivt beskæftiger mig med i Begær og rekuperation, og ikke det kryptiske element af hans tænkning, som jeg kritiserer i teksten her.

6. Franco ‘Bifo’ Berrardi: The Soul at Work – from Alienation to Autonomy, 2007, s. 124-127

7. Se f.eks. Franco ‘Bifo’ Berrardi: After the Future, 2011, s. 180.

8. Se Franco ‘Bifo’ Berrardi: Emancipation of the sign: Poetry and Finance During the Twentieth Century, e-flux # 39, 2012 og How to heal a depression, 2008.

9. I slutningen af Begær og rekuperation. Se også afsnittet om Virilio tidligere i samme tekst.

10. Se Bevægelse og inerti.

11. Paul Virilio: Cyberworld – det værstes politik, 1998 [1996], s. 57-58, 73-79

12. Efter at flere hundrede flygtninge druknede tæt ved den italienske ø Lampedussa den 3. Oktober 2013, har EU’s egen indenrigskommissær Cecilia Malmström givet udtryk for at kontrollen har nået en grænse og sagt: “Vi er nødt til at ændre vores tilgang til migration. Den restriktive tilgang har nået sin grænse.”

13. Ibid. s. 62

14. Ibid. s. 87

15. Se interview mellem Paul Virilio og Hans-Ulrich Obrist. Download

16. Se også Arjun Appudarai: Modernity at Large – Cultural Dimensions of Globalization (2010) [1996], s. 154.

17. Se Bevægelse og inerti. Intet kan afstedkomme så abstrakt tale som en enkelt flygtning eller lille gruppe flygtninges skæbne. Vi kan åbne ikke op for alle verdens flygtninge. Antallet betyder noget. Igen er der tale om et nationalstatsligt paradoks: De nærværende omtales med reference til et potentielt antal, der i forestillingen ikke har en grænse og ingen forbindelse til virkeligheden – og dermed heller ikke peger tilbage på de konkrete skæbner.

18. Franco ‘Bifo’ Berrardi: After the Future, 2011, s. 17. Min oversættelse fra: “[…] system of virtual life and actual death, of virtual knowledge and actual war.” Paul Virilio: Cyberworld – det værstes politik, 1998 [1996], s. 97 og interview mellem Paul Virilio og Hans-Ulrich Obrist. Download. Jeg vil ikke gå ind på en diskussion af Baudrillards berømte påstand om at Golfkrigen ikke fandt sted – jeg har kun overfladisk kendskab til hans argument og refererer her blot til en kritisk sidebemærkning af Virilio.

19. Paul Virilio: Cyberworld – det værstes politik, 1998 [1996], s. 80

20. Som i Begær og rekuperation.

21. Michel Foucault: Brugen af nydelserne – Seksualitetens historie 2, 2004 [1984], s. 20.

22. Ibid. s. 17, 44 og 94.

23. Ibid. s. 40, 45, 47, 54-56, 40, 92

24. Se Ibid. s. 198-199.

25. Ibid. s. 225

26. Ibid. s. 83-84 og 203

27. Ibid. s. 137-138, 142

28. Ibid. s. 160-161 og Omsorgen for sig selv – Seksualitetens historie 3, 2004 [1984], s. 80, 83, 157 og 198

29. Michel Foucault: Brugen af nydelserne – Seksualitetens historie 2, 2004 [1984], s. 220-221

30. Formuleret i Begær og rekuperation.

31. Se f.eks. the games of love and change: a discussion with Paul Virilio.

32. Se slutningen af Begær og rekuperation.

33. Se især Radikalitet og selvrepræsentation.

34. Denne tankegang trækker bl.a. på Derridas skelnen mellem tolerance (betinget gæstfrihed) og gæstfrihed (ubetinget gæstfrihed). Se Jacques Derrida: Of Hospitality, 2000 [1997].

35. Som kærligheden gør og er det ifølge Paulus’ første brev til korintherne i Det nye testamente.

36. Se Radikalitet og selvrepræsentation.

Kærlighed og had

1. Se diskussionen i begyndelsen af Radikalitet og selvrepræsentation.

2. Se slutningen af Metoden og begyndelsen af Begrebsliggørelsen.

3. I begyndelsen af Begrebsliggørelsen.

4. I Radikalitet og selvrepræsentation.

5. K.E. Løgstrup: Opgør med Kierkegaard, 1967, s. 123

6. Jeg vil gerne undgå den misforståelse at denne form for underkastelse og naivitet kan finde sit belæg i Løgstrups tekster – det er ikke tilfældet, hvis man læser grundigt nok.

7. Jacques Derrida: Of Hospitality, 2000 [1997]. I det følgende trækker jeg på passager fra bl.a. side 25, 27, 55, 61 og 125.

8. Jeg påstår ikke at det er en millimeterpræcis læsning af gæstfriheden hos Derrida. Måske har min ambivalens at gøre med to beslægtede, men for mig kvalitativt forskellige, spor i hans tænkning om andethed og tilblivelse. Et stærkt etisk og politisk spor, der kommer til udtryk, når han siger om temaerne i Emmanuel Levinas’ etiske tænkning, at de er som bølger, der slår ind på stranden: ustandselig kommer den samme bølge igen, men altid fornyet og beriget. Og et mere spillende, litterært – og for mig neoliberalt bevægelsesdyrkende – spor, der kommer til udtryk, når han siger, med henblik på skriftens konstante spil og tilblivelse, at selve historien må standses, hvis sproget skal beskyttes mod skriften. Det klinger for mig lidt som Roland Barthes’ litterært hedonistiske ”Endnu et ord, endnu en fest.” Et udtryk for den postmoderne glæde over sprogets konstante ih så festlige nye gevandter, der hæver sprog og skrift over etik og mulige menneskelige omkostninger.

9. Jeg er klar over at jeg, set i en poststrukturalistisk, anti-dualistisk optik, bevæger mig i ’reaktionære vande’. Jeg skelner dikotomisk mellem visse begrebsmodstillinger og opretholder dermed også nogle hierarkier; det være sig mellem revolution og dagen derpå, hvor jeg giver dagen derpå en vis forrang, mellem hverdag og fest, hvor jeg giver hverdagen en vis forrang. Der er tilmed et moment af dem og os i min fremstilling – selv om over-inklusion ikke er forbeholdt aktivister, men også går den anden vej, fra flygtning til aktivist, og fra flygtning til flygtning, fra aktivist til aktivist. Det er ikke fordi jeg ønsker at opretholde alle modsætninger (jeg mener ikke at en mand er en mand og en kvinde en kvinde), slet ikke mellem aktivist og flygtning, men det løser ikke noget for mig uden videre at proklamere Vi er alle asylaktivister! eller Vi er alle flygtninge!

10. Især i Begær og rekuperation og de følgende tekster.

11. Jf. logikken i den sidste tredjedel af Bevægelse og inerti.

12. Ellers måtte jeg også have forladt huset for længe siden. I det hele taget kan det jo bemærkes at det meste af min kritik i disse tekster er selvkritik og kritik af ’politisk allierede’ – og ikke polemisk kritik, der f.eks. kan samle en bred venstrefløj mod højrefløjen. Det kan ses som en pointe at jeg i en tekst, der beskæftiger sig med et for mig uomgængeligt aspekt af had og vrede i kærlighed, bruger hårde vendinger om elementer af det sted, hvor jeg har min dagligdag.

13. Staten, endda i skikkelse af Udlændingestyrelsen, der står for tildelingen af pengene, er ikke ligefrem min foretrukne sponsor, men jeg mener ikke at der meget modstand mod at modtage penge fra den blandt husets asylansøgende brugere og står hovedsagligt derfor inde for at modtage penge fra den. Det er selvfølgelig en diskussion værd om politisk integritet og radikalitet, men jeg vil ikke begynde den her, fordi jeg her fokuserer på en anden slags kritik af huset, der ikke oplagt kan placeres på aksen fra ikke-radikal til radikal, reformistisk til revolutionær etc.

14. Jeg kaster mig ikke ud i en diskussion af, hvorvidt Trampolinhuset mest har været et multikulturelt og farverigt kulturhus eller et aktivistisk, transnationalt fællesskab præget af begær og overskridelse. I begyndelsen kunne det virke som en særlig energifuld symbiose af begge elementer.

15. Hermed vender jeg tilbage til hovedpointen i Begær og rekuperation.

16. Filmen slutter med den flygtende heltindes hævn over det lille bysamfund, der havde skjult hende og siden udnyttet hendes gæstestatus.

17. Slavoj Zizek: Dagen efter oprøret, 2011. http://www.information.dk/283133

18. Slavoj Zizek: The simple courage of decision: a leftist tribute to Thatcher, 2013. http://www.newstatesman.com/politics/politics/2013/04/simple-courage-decision-leftist-tribute-thatcher.

18. Det er måske en af grundene til at den norske racist og massemorder Breivik har kategoriseret netop Dogville som en af sine yndlingsfilm, skønt han dermed må vende filmen om i et anti-immigrant perspektiv. Det er selvfølgelig langt ude at han projicerer filmens hovedpersons vrede og hævn over på sit eget nationalistiske had og måske endda har ladet det være inspiration til sin ugerning, men jeg har alligevel respekt for at instruktør Lars von Trier, i stedet for at forsvare sig, hvad han med gode argumenter kunne gøre, decideret har fortrudt at han har lavet filmen – og dermed undgår, trods hans ellers pæne dedikation til sine frembringelser, at hæve sine film over den virkelighed, som de er en del af.

Afsluttende teoretiske og praktiske overvejelser

1. Det er naturligvis en generel konflikt mellem teoretiske og praktiske tilgange, der rækker ud over asylområdet.

2. Om end jeg ikke har et helt så ortodokst negativt syn på gerningsretfærdigheden som mange kristne teologer og kan være okay med at nogle folk, der gør noget godt, ind i mellem kommer med en moralsk bredside mod dem, hvis gerninger er temmelig godt skjulte eller fordampet i det teoretiske blå.

3. Som f.eks. Gæstfrie i Halsnæs og HusEnFlygtning.

4. I Kærlighed og had.

5. Som jeg bedyrede i Kærlighed og had.

6. Se Begrebsliggørelsen, Migrationens autonomi og Begær og rekuperation.

7. Huset bruges af nogle asyllejrbeboere som en strategisk måde at øge deres mobilitet på eller skaffe en indtjening ved at sælge de billetter, som de får tildelt i huser. Andre tænker ikke strategisk og ser huset som deres anden familie og bruger det uselvisk. For de fleste gør begge aspekter sig formentlig gældende.

8. Se den teoretiske diskussion af dette i Migrationens autonomi.

9. Se også begyndelsen af Kærlighed og had.

10. Se Grænsemødet.

11. Se f.eks. Nicholas De Genova: The Queer Politics of Migration – Reflections on ’Illegality’ and Incorrigibility, 2010. Jeg yder ikke teksten retfærdighed med en gennærlæsning, men forholder mig til den logik, den engang satte i gang hos mig selv.

12. Zachary Whyte: In process: an ethnography of asylum seeking in Denmark, s. 2008, s. 189. Oversat fra: ”These are our only homes now. This is our address now.” Flygtninge og migranter er måske de mest ekstreme eksempler på den virtuelle afhængighed, som jeg antyder i Begær og rekuperation. Mit dobbelte perspektiv på det er forudsigeligt. På den ene side får det mig ikke ud i at hylde nye kommunikationsteknologier – jeg fastholder at de ødelægger vores sociale liv. På den anden side har jeg forståelse for at flygtninge og migranter måske udtrykker sig på en helt anden positiv måde om dem og vil ikke bortforklare dette med mit eget negative syn. Flygtninges brug af moderne kommunikationsteknologi kunne dog være interessant at undersøge og noget, jeg eventuelt vil vende tilbage til i den empiriske del.

13. Deres tankegang ligger til grund for de i skrivende stund nyeste stramninger på asylområdet. Jeg vil benytte lejligheden til at udtrykke min glæde over de af mine venner, der bruger noget af deres vrede energi på at kommentere samtidens udvikling og kritisere den store politiske fjende. Jeg kigger jo kun indad og kritiserer mine egne. En uundgåelig ting, kan man sige, hvis man vil værne et kommende samfund mod den selvgodhed og moralske afstumpethed, der er nationalstatens, i hvert fald den danskes, kendetegn. Men måske også en belejlig og ikke så ansvarlig ting at gøre. I stedet for at påstå at jeg taler om et kommende samfund, er det mere realistisk at sige at jeg skriver om en nederlagets etik.

14. Min kursivering. Fra Asylrets hjemmeside.

15. Jf. spørgsmålene, der rejses i Metoden.